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Facts and Thoughts - All Records

Ohio Greenway's Facts and Thoughts database is a collection of greenway tidbits that support greenway development.  This potpourri of greenway particulars was the product of the work of George M. Pomeroy, a doctoral student of Urban Studies at the University of Akron.

Snippet: When AEP, an Ohio-based electric company, plans to safeguard 2.2 mil. acres of tropical forest in Bolivia to offset an estimated 14.5 metric tons of atmospheric carbon over 30 years at an estimated cost of $8.8 million.
Source: Nature Conservancy
Year: 1997
Full Citation: "Double the Park, Cut the Carbon" NATURE CONSERVANCY March / April 1997

Snippet: The Chesapeake Bay jurisdictions of Md., Va., Penn.; D.C.; the US EPA, and the Chesapeake Bay Comm. are planning to protect existing riparian forests and specfically to reforest 2,010 miles of bay tributaries over the next 13 years.
Source: Nonpoint Source News-Notes
Year: 1997
Full Citation: "Nation's First Riparian Forest Buffer Goal - 2010 Miles by 2010" NONPOINT SOURCE NEWS-NOTES April / May 1997. Issue #48

Snippet: High levees next ot a river's central channel may control a flood, but at great expense. Less expensive set-back levees (bottom) let the river occupy its natural floodplain. The resulting wetlands act as a buffer for floods and can be used for farming
Source: New York Times
Year: 1997
Full Citation: "California Floods Change Thinking on Need to Tame Rivers" NEW YORK TIMES Feb. 4, 1997 p. B10

Snippet: Residents are most likely to name some aspect of Ohio's scenery, landscape, or environment when asked if a particular place or thing characterizes the state. In this category, Lake Erie and the Ohio River are often mention by Ohioans.
Source: The Ohio Poll
Year: 1997
Full Citation: "The Ohio Poll - Project Report for Ohio Bicentennial Commission" Alfred Tuchfarber and Eric Rademacher. Inst. For Policy Research, Univ. of Cincinnati. April 1997

Snippet: When asked what they like most about Ohio, residents most frequently (21%) cite some aspect of the state's scenery, landscape, or environment such as its "beauty", its rolling hills, farmlands or countryside.
Source: The Ohio Poll
Year: 1997
Full Citation: The Ohio Poll - Project Report for Ohio Bicentennial Commission" Alfred Tuchfarber and Eric Rademacher. Inst. For Policy Research, Univ. of Cincinnati. April 1997

Snippet: Grassroots efforts to save and convert rail-trails across Ohio have already resulted in 30 trails strectching 200 miles, and more than forty additional conversion projects are under way. Ohio leads the nation in rail-trails…
Source: Biking Ohio's Rail Trails
Year: 1996
Full Citation: BIKING OHIO'S RAIL-TRAILS by Shawn E. Richardson. Cambridge, MA: Adventure Publications.

Snippet: The 20-mile greenway that opened in Atlanta in advance of the gridlock-plagued Olympics kept thousands of cars off the streets.
Source: Common Ground
Year: 1996
Full Citation: "Small Tracts" COMMON GROUND 7(6) Sept./Oct. 1996.

Snippet: The vast majority of those interviewed felt that land conservation was an important public service. 89% felt that land conservation was a good use of public funds, and 91% said that some parts of Maryland should be left in their natural state forever.
Source: Maryland Greenways Commission
Year: 1995
Full Citation: "Attitude Survey of Maryland Residents Regarding Greenways and Open Space - Executive Summary" April 1995

Snippet: The majority of those interview felt that the presence of natural areas ahs a positive economic effect on nearby real estate. Most people (80%) felt that parks and natural areas incr. the value of nearby properties, 76% would be willing to pay more.
Source: Maryland Greenways Commission
Year: 1995
Full Citation: "Attitude Survey of Maryland Residents Regarding Greenways and Open Space - Executive Summary" April 1995

Snippet: Less than half of the respondents (48%) felt that state and local governments are doing enough to preserve natural resources and open space in Maryland
Source: Maryland Greenways Commission
Year: 1995
Full Citation: "Attitude Survey of Maryland Residents Regarding Greenways and Open Space - Executive Summary" April 1995

Snippet: Over 80% of the respondents felt that land conservation should keep pace with development, and the majority of people in each expect development to increase over the next five years.
Source: Maryland Greenways Commission
Year: 1995
Full Citation: "Attitude Survey of Maryland Residents Regarding Greenways and Open Space - Executive Summary" April 1995

Snippet: The majority of respondents (77%) said it is important to have natural areas close to where they work and live. Almost half of the participants (48%) said they would be inclined to move if existing open space in their community were lost.
Source: Maryland Greenways Commission
Year: 1995
Full Citation: "Attitude Survey of Maryland Residents Regarding Greenways and Open Space - Executive Summary" April 1995

Snippet: Many (63%) said that preservation of greenway corridors can help compensate for increased development in growing communities.
Source: Maryland Greenways Commission
Year: 1995
Full Citation: "Attitude Survey of Maryland Residents Regarding Greenways and Open Space - Executive Summary" April 1995

Snippet: The vast majority of those interview (90%) support the development of walking and biking paths in their community, and 86% said they would support converting an abandoned railroad corridor in their community into a recreational trail.
Source: Maryland Greenways Commission
Year: 1995
Full Citation: "Attitude Survey of Maryland Residents Regarding Greenways and Open Space - Executive Summary" April 1995

Snippet: While only a small percentage (6%) said they currenty walk or bike to work, a substantial number (21%) said they would use a trail system for commuting five days a week if it were safe and convenient; 19% said they would use such a trail 2-3 days a week.
Source: Maryland Greenways Commission
Year: 1995
Full Citation: "Attitude Survey of Maryland Residents Regarding Greenways and Open Space - Executive Summary" April 1995

Snippet: Ohio lost an average of 9 acres of farmland per hour - more than 1.4 million acres - betnween 1974 and 1992, according to the Ohio Agricultural Statistics Service. Agriculture is Ohio's leading industry, with 72,000 farms covering 15.1 million acres.
Source: unknown
Year: 1997
Full Citation: "Task Force Seeks to Curb Urban Sprawl

Snippet: Currently (8/1/96) there are 810 existing rail-trails totaling more than 8,000 miles in 48 states, and another 1,000 projects underway across the country
Source: RTC calendar
Year: 1996
Full Citation:  

Snippet: In 1995, America's rail-trails were used more than 90.5 million times by walkers, bicyclists, skaters, people with disabilities, equestrians, cross-country skiers, and other outdoor enthusiasts.
Source: RTC calendar
Year: 1996
Full Citation:  

Snippet: Eight rail-trails host more than a million users every year- including Florida's Pinellas Trail, Virginia's Washington & Old Dominion Railroad Regional Trail, Mass.' Minuteman Trail, Rhode Island's East Bay Bike Path, Washington's Burke-Gilman Trail
Source: RTC calendar
Year: 1996
Full Citation:  

Snippet: Each rail-trail pumps an average of $1.5 million a year into local economies
Source: RTC calendar
Year: 1996
Full Citation:  

Snippet: In just three years, RTC's Trail Conservancy has preserved more than 800 miles of rail corridor for trail use.
Source: RTC calendar
Year: 1996
Full Citation:  

Snippet: If a community is going to attract long-term residents and long-term business, that community must be concerned about its appearance, physical character, livability, and feel.
Source: Scenic America
Year: 1992
Full Citation: "On the Value of Open Spaces" SCENIC AMERICA TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERIES. 1(2).

Snippet: Properties near, but not immediately adjacent to, the 12-mile Burke-Gilman Trail sell for an average of 6% more than comparable properties away from the trail. Property immediately adjacent to the trail is easy to sell.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Seattle Office for Planning (1987) "Evaluation of Burke-Gilman Trail's Effect on Property Values" Seattle, WA: Seattle Office for Planning.

Snippet: Concerning the Burke-Gilman Trail, the concerns about decreased property values, increased crime, and a lower quality of life due to the construction of multiuse trails are unfound. In fact the opposite is true.
Source:  
Year: 0
Full Citation:  

Snippet: A study of property values near greenbelts in Boulder, Colorado, noted that housing prices declined an average of $4.20 for each foot of distance from a greenbelt up to 3,200 feet. In one neighborhood this figure was $10.20 for each foot of distance.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Correll, Lillydahl, and Singell. (1978) "The Effects of Greenbelts on Residential Property Values: Some findings on the Political Economy of Space" LAND ECONOMICS.

Snippet: The effect of greenbelt land on property values applies to privately held land also, according to a study of the Salem metro area in Oregon. Urban land adjacent to the rural greenbelt was worth approximately $1,200 more per acre than that 1,000 ft away.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Nelson, Arthur C. (1986) "Using Land Markets to Evaluate Urban Containment Programs" APA JOURNAL. Spring. 156-171.

Snippet: Clustered housing developments with open space in Amherst and Concord, MA, appreciated at a rate of 22%, faster than the 19.5% for housing on conventional lots in a nearby development.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Lacy, Jeff (1990)"an Examination of Market Appreciation for Clustered Housing with Permanently Protected Open Space" Center for Rural Mass. Monograph Series. Amherst:U of Mass

Snippet: An analysis of property surrounding four parks in Worcester, Mass., shoed a house located 20 feet from a park sold for $2,675 (1982 dollars) more than a similar house located 2,000 feet away.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: More, Thomas; Thomas Stevens and P. Geoffrey Allen (1982) "The Economics of Urban Parks" PARKS AND RECREATION. August.

Snippet: In the neighborhood of Cox Arboretum, in Dayton, Ohio, the proximity of the park and arboretum accounted for an estimated 5% of the average residential selling price.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Kimmel, Margaret M. (1985) "Parks and Property Values: An Empirical Study in Dayton and Columbus, Ohio" Thesis. Oxford, OH:Miami University, Institute of Environmental Science

Snippet: In the Whetstone Park area of Columbus, Ohio, the nearby park and river were estimated to account for 7.35 of selling prices.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Kimmel, Margaret M. (1985) "Parks and Property Values: An Empirical Study in Dayton and Columbus, Ohio" Thesis. Oxford, OH:Miami University, Institute of Environmental Science

Snippet: In the vicinity of Philadelphia's 1,300 acre Pennypack Park, property values correlate significantly with proximity to the park. In 1974, the park accounted for 33% of the value of a plot of land when located 40 feet away form the park.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Hammer, Thomas; Robert Coughlin, and Edward Horn. (1974) "Research Report: The Effect of a Large Park on Real Estate Value" JOURNAL, AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS. July.

Snippet: Similar residential properties near a park in Coumbus, Ohio, were compared to determine if proximity to the park affected property values. Homes that faced the park were found to sell for between 7 to 23% more than homes one block from the park.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Weicher, John C. and Robert H. Zerbst (1973) "The Externalities of Neighborhood Parks: An Empirical Investigation" LAND ECONOMICS. 49(1):99-105.

Snippet: A National Park Service study of three trails in California, Iowa, and Florida showed that landowners felt that proximity to the trails had not adversely affected the desirability or values of their properties.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: National Park Service and Pennsylvania University. THE IMPACTS OF RAIL-TRAILS. Washington, DC: Rivers, Trails, and Conservation Assistance Program.

Snippet: In a survey of adjacent landowners along the Luce Line rail-trail in Minnesota, 87% of landowners believe the trail increased or had no effect on the value of their property. 61% of suburban residential owners felt property values increased.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Mazour, Leonard P. (1988) "Converted Railroad Trails: The Impact on Adjacent Property" Master's Thesis. Manhattan KS: Kansas St. University, Dept. of Landscape Architecture.

Snippet: A study of the impacts of greenbelts on neighborhood property values in boulder, Colorado, revealed the aggregate property value for one neighborhood was approximately $5.4 million greater than if there had been no greenbelt.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Correll, Lillydahl, and Singell. (1978) "The Effects of Greenbelts on Residential Property Values: Some findings on the Political Economy of Space" LAND ECONOMICS.

Snippet: As reported by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, 30% of the total national wildlife-related recreation expenditures ($18.1 billion in 1991) was related to wildlife viewing and photography.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: US Fish and Wildlife Service (1993) "National Survey of Fishing , Hunting and Wildlife Associated Recreation" Washington, DC: US Dept. of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service.

Snippet: Trail users of three rail-trails generated a total economic impact of over $1.2 million for each trail, according to the recent study. These trails were used mostly by people living nearby who visited frequently.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Moore, Roger L. et al, (1992) "The Impact of Rail-Trails" Washington DC: US dept. of the Interior, National Park Service.

Snippet: Maryland's north Central Rail Trail, a 20-corridor through Baltimore county, supports approximately 264 jobs statewide. Goods purchased for uses related to the trail were valued at over $3.38 million.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Maryland Greenways Commision (1994) "Analysis of Economic Impacts of the Northern Central Rail Trail" Prepared by PFK consulting for the Maryland Greenways Commission.

Snippet: A 1991 survey of trail users in Oil Creek State Park in Venango Conty, Pennsylvania revealed that each cyclist spent an average of $25.86 per visit / day.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Pennsylvania Economy League (1993) "the Economic Impact of the President Oil Land Acquistion on Venango County"

Snippet: The Northern Virginia Regional Park Authority has a twenty year agreement with AT&T for thirty miles of fiber-optics routing along the Washington and Old Dominion Rail Trail. The annual fee from AT&T is used to cover capital improvements for the trail.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: McCray, Paul (1994) Telephone Communication with McCray, Park Manager, Northern Virginia Regional Park Authority

Snippet: The trail managing entity of Wisconsin's Glacial Drumlin Trail issued a ten-foot wide perpetual easement to US Telecom, which pave the 48-mile trail ($375,000 value) in exchange for use of the corridor.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Ryan, Karen Lee, ed. (1993) "Trails for the Twenty-First Century" Rails-to-Trails Conservancy

Snippet: A mutual benefit program brought together the California Conservation Core (CCC) and assorted conservation groups, including greenways advocates, to employ 2,000 young adults to work on various projects. This helped foster development of work skills.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: California Conservation Corps (1990)

Snippet: Together with the California Conservation Corps (CCC), various conservation groups employed 2,000 youths to help rebuilt or construct 2,500 miles of trail and enhance 900 miles of streams.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: California Conservation Corps (1990)

Snippet: A poll commissioned by the President's Commission on Americans Outdoors found that natural beauty was the single most important criterion for tourists in selecting a site for outdoor recreation.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: SCENIC AMERICA (1987) "Fact Sheet: Sign Control and Economic Development" SIGN CONTROL NEWS

Snippet: In a recent report, the governors of five New England states officially recognized open space as a key element in the "quality of life" as providing the foundation of a multi-billion dollar toursm industry and bringing rapid economic growth to the region.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Governor's committee on the Environment (1988) "Report of the Committee on the Environment" New England Governor's Conference, Inc.

Snippet: A travel industry study cited by the WALL STREET JOURNAL noted that visitors intending to visit historic sites stay a half-day longer and spend $62 more at historic sites than at other locations.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: WALL STREET JOURNAL (1993)

Snippet: San Antonio Riverwalk is considered the anchor of the tourism industry in San Antonio, Texas. Tourism is the second largest economic sector in the city, accounting for $1.2 billion annually. The riverwalk is the state's 2nd leading tourist attraction.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: gp - see page 5-6 as cite not listed!

Snippet: 1988, users of the Elroy-Sparta Trail in Wisconsin averaged expenditures of $25.14 per day for trip-related expenses. Total 1988 trail user expenditures were from out-of-state, and the typical user travelled 228 miles to get to the trail.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Schwecke, Tim; et al (1989) "A look at Visitors on Wisconsin's Elroy-Sparta Trail" Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin - Extension Service, Recreation Research Center

Snippet: In Montana an estimated 75,000 visitors to the upper Missouri Wild and Scenic River, and Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail, contribute $750,000 annually to the economy of the area around the 149-mile corridor.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Bureau of Land Management (1987) "Recreation 2000" Washington DC: US Dept. of Interior, Bureau of Land Management.

Snippet: Once trail construction is complete along Sonoita Creek in Patagonia State Park, in Arizona, the trail is projected to bring $150,000 into the area from increased visitation.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: University of Arizona Water Resources Center (1994) "Heritage Funds Riparian Area" ARIZONA WATER RESOURCE. Tucson AZ: University of Arizona

Snippet: Touring cyclists, when travelling in a groups, spent $17 per day (camping) and $50 per day (staying in motels). Cyclists travelling alone spent an aveage of $22 per day camping and $60 per day in motels.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Moran, Catherine; William Wilkinson, and James Fremont (1986) Literature review paper for PCAO.

Snippet: On North Carolina's Nantahala River, rafters generated $1.8 million in expenditures in 1982.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Swain County Board of Commissioners (1982) "An Economic Study of the Whitewater Resource of the Nantahala River Gorge on Swain County and the Region"

Snippet: Implementation of the Yakima Greenway spurred many business changes in the city of Yakima, Wash. Restaurants, motels, and sporting goods shops credit their increased business to trail users.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Feasey, Barbara (1989) Telephone communication. Executive director of Yakima Greenway.

Snippet: In 1985, purchases associated with water-related (rivers and lakes) outdoor recreation in Minnesota totalled nearly $1.2 billion. Adding the multiplier effects of these purchases brought the total impact to $1.9 billion and was linked to 37,600 jobs.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Kelley, Timothy J. and Ronald M . Sushak (1987) "Significance of Water-Related Outdoor Recreaton to the State and Regional Economies in Minnesota" MN: Minnesota DNR.

Snippet: More than 4 million adult Americans used a bicycle (at least occasionally) to commute to work or school during 1993.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Bicycle Federation of America (1994) "Facts About Bicycling" brochure

Snippet: Where bicycle trails exists in the Chicago region, it was found that 15.6% of commuter trips in census zones with trails were by bicycle.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Eubanks, David M. (1986) "From Abandoned Railways to Recreation Trails: Measurement of Community Impact" Research Practicum. Chicago: University of Chicago.

Snippet: The wetlands of Congaree Bottomland Hardwood Swamp in South Carolina provide valuable water quality functions such as sediment, toxicant and excess nutrient removal. The least cost substitute for such services would be a $5 million treatment plant.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Caputo, Darryl F. (1979) "Open Space Pays: The Socioenvironomics of Open Space Preservation" Green Acres Program, New Jersey EPA. Morristown NJ: New Jersey Conservation Fdn.

Snippet: A $600,000 greenways network and streamways park system developed in Johnson County, Kansas was one alternative to spending $120 million on stormwater control projects. A valuable recreation resource was also provided.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: no citation

Snippet: Stream restoration efforts along Boulder Creek in Boulder, Colorado reduced potential wastewater treatment costs significantly. This was an alternative to the construction of a nitrification tower.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Barnett, John (1990) Telephone conversation. Greenways Coordinator, City of Boulder, CO.

Snippet: A single isolated tree, generously supplied with water can transpire energy equivalent to five average room air conditioners running 20 hours per day, depending on the species of tree, available moisture, and evaptranspiration rates.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Federed, C.A. (1971) Effects of Trees in Modifying Urban Micro Climates" in TREES AND FORESTS IN AN URBANIZING ENVIRONMENT. Amherst MA: Univ. of Mass. Extension Service.

Snippet: Studies indicate that a single rural tree can intercept up to 50 pounds of particulates per year.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: McPherson, E.G. (1991) "Economic Modelling for Large-Scale Tree Plantings" ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND THE ENVIRONMENT: FORGING THE LINK.

Snippet: A theoretical model developed by the Rand Corporation calculated that for every mile a person walks or runs, they will save society 24 cents in medical and other costs.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Men's Fitness Magazine (1992). "Walk a Little, Live a Little" August.

Snippet: A study of four parks in Worcester, Mass., found that if park visitors were willing to pay one dollar per visit, the value of this use would be almost $425,000 annually - substantially above the annual $125,000 it costs to maintain the park's 219 acres.
Source: Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors
Year: 1995
Full Citation: More, Stevens, and Allen (1982). Rest of citation not provided!

Snippet: A 1974 study of land values surrounding 1294 acre Pennypack Park in Philadelphia found a statistically significant rise in land value with proximity to the park. Each acre of parkland generated a value of $2,600 in location rent (enhancement value).
Source: The Economic Value of Open Space: A Review and Synthesis.
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Hammer, Thomas; Robert Coughlin, and Edward Horn. (1974) "Research Report: The Effect of a Large Park on Real Estate Value" JOURNAL, AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS. July.

Snippet: The Minnesota DNR has estimated that the cost of replacing the natural floodwater storage function of wetlands is $300 per acre-foot of water.
Source: The Economic Value of Open Space: A Review and Synthesis.
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Rivers and Trails Conservation Assistance (1995) "Economic Impacts of Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors" Washington, DC: USDI, National Park Service.

Snippet: A USDA Forest Service (1995) report estimated that 13 million Americans canoe, 58 million fish, and 54 million camp. The fastest growing activities are hiking, backpacking, and primitive site camping.
Source: The Economic Value of Open Space: A Review and Synthesis.
Year: 1996
Full Citation: USDA Forest Service (1995) "National Survey on Recreation and the Environment: 1994-95 Key Findings". Washington DC: USDA Forest Service.

Snippet: Along the Ohio River Corridor, an estimated 500 local river heritage and other river-related special events occur each year. These events generate perhaps $100 million throughout the corridor.
Source: "What's a River Worth? - A Valuation Survey of the Ohio River Corridor
Year: 1994
Full Citation: "What's a River Worth? - A Valuation Survey of the Ohio River Corridor" Research Paper.

Snippet: Along the Ohio River Corridor,Approximately 10,000 businesses employing over 150,000 persons rely on the patronage of tourists and other recreation visitors. This translates into 7 to 8% of all businesses in the corridor.
Source: "What's a River Worth? - A Valuation Survey of the Ohio River Corridor
Year: 1994
Full Citation: "What's a River Worth? - A Valuation Survey of the Ohio River Corridor" Research Paper.

Snippet: The Ohio River supports over 100 species of fish, 70 species, of mussels, and many species of aquatic and terrestrial birds and animals.
Source: "What's a River Worth? - A Valuation Survey of the Ohio River Corridor
Year: 1994
Full Citation: "What's a River Worth? - A Valuation Survey of the Ohio River Corridor" Research Paper.

Snippet: The Ohio River has a number of unique and nationally significant ecosystems, including Ohio River islands, wetlands, and the Falls of the Ohio.
Source: "What's a River Worth? - A Valuation Survey of the Ohio River Corridor
Year: 1994
Full Citation: "What's a River Worth? - A Valuation Survey of the Ohio River Corridor" Research Paper.

Snippet: Only about 10% of Ohio's estimated 7 million acres of wetlands still exists; the remaining wetlands are concentrated in the northern one-third of the state.
Source: 1995 State of the Environment Report
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Ohio Comparative Risk Project (1995) "1995 State of the Environment Report"

Snippet: National aggregate off-site cost estimates for soil erosion show total annual off-farm costs for all agricultural erosion sources to range from $3 billion to $13 billion with a mid-point estimate (revised) of $7.1 billion.
Source: Ohio's Challenge
Year:  
Full Citation: Hitzhusen, Fred J. (199?) "Soil Erosion: A Downstream Economic Perspective" OHIO'S CHALLENGE. Pp. 3-5.

Snippet: An unpublished 1983 survey by the Soil and Water Division of the Ohio DNR estimated annual off-site sediment costs of Ohio soil erosion at $160 million.
Source: Ohio's Challenge
Year: 0
Full Citation: Hitzhusen, Fred J. (199?) "Soil Erosion: A Downstream Economic Perspective" OHIO'S CHALLENGE. Pp. 3-5.

Snippet: In 1988, the Ohio Alliance for the Environment estimated the annual cost of removing sediment from Ohio's lakes, streams, waterways, harbors, and water treatment plants at $162 million per year.
Source: Ohio's Challenge
Year: 0
Full Citation: Hitzhusen, Fred J. (199?) "Soil Erosion: A Downstream Economic Perspective" OHIO'S CHALLENGE. Pp. 3-5.

Snippet: In a Maryland poll over 90% of the 700 people surveyed agreed that conserving land for public parks, recreation and water quality is a good use of public funds; state and local officials should do more to preserve natural resources and open space.
Source: Common Ground 8(4)
Year: 1997
Full Citation: COMMON GROUND (1997) "Maryland Poll Helps Electorate Say What it Wants" (8)4. May / June.

Snippet: In a Maryland poll over 90% of the 700 people surveyed agreed that the high cost to taxpayers of building infrastructure for unplanned growth is a serious concern.
Source: Common Ground 8(4)
Year: 1997
Full Citation: COMMON GROUND (1997) "Maryland Poll Helps Electorate Say What it Wants" (8)4. May / June.

Snippet: In a Maryland poll conducted by the Conservation Fund, an overwhelming majority of those surveyed expressed concern about loss of park and recreation land (90%), urban decay (86%), loss of resource and conservation lands (85%) and loss of farmland (78%).
Source: Common Ground 8(4)
Year: 1997
Full Citation: COMMON GROUND (1997) "Maryland Poll Helps Electorate Say What it Wants" (8)4. May / June.

Snippet: Participation levels in various outdoors recreation activities has increased in recent years. Participation levels in canoeing, backpacking and tent camping, bicycling, and beach activities increased, as in a number of other activities.
Source: SCORP
Year: 1993
Full Citation: Ohio Department of Natural Resources (1993) 1993 OHIO STATEWIDE COMPREHENSIVE OUTDOOR RECREATION PLAN.

Snippet: Parsons (1992) found that land use restrictions in Maryland designed to protect Cheasapeake Bay caused a considerable increase in housing prices, ranging from 14% to 27% for houses in the "Critical Zone" (within 1000 from the bay and tributaries).
Source: The Economic Value of Open Space: A Review and Synthesis.
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Parsons, G.R. (1992) "The Effect of Coastal Land Use Restrictions on Housing Prices: A Repeat Sale Analysis" JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT (22) 25-37.

Snippet: Massachusetts, with assistance from other state, local, and federal agencies, used $10 million to secure 8500 acres of wetlands in the Charles River basin to serve floodwater mitigation efforts. Alternative measures would have cost over $100 million.
Source: The Economic Value of Open Space: A Review and Synthesis.
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Kusler, J. and L. Larson (1993) "Beyond the Ark: A New Approach to US Floodplain Management" ENVIRONMENT 35(5):6-16.

Snippet: The Minnesota DNR has estimated that the cost of replacing the natural floowdwater storage function of wetlands is $300 per acre-foot of water.
Source: The Economic Value of Open Space: A Review and Synthesis.
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Rivers and Trails Conservation Assistance (1995) ECONOMIC IMPACT OF PROTECTING RIVERS, TRAILS AND GREENWAY CORRIDORS. 4th ed. USDI National Park Service.

Snippet: The total value of the Dutch Wadden Sea coastal wetlands for flood prevention, storage and recycling of human waste, aquaculture and recreation, food production, education and scientific uses is estimated to exceed $6200 per hectare.
Source: The Economic Value of Open Space: A Review and Synthesis.
Year: 1995
Full Citation: deGroot, R.S. (1994) "Environmental Functions and the Economic Value of Natural Ecosystems" in INVESTING IN NATURAL CAPITAL: THE ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS APPROACH TO SUSTAINABILITY. Washington DC: Island Press.

Snippet: The storm protection value of coastal wetlands in Louisiana was estimated to be $1915 per acre (in 1983 dollars).
Source: The Economic Value of Open Space: A Review and Synthesis.
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Costanza, R., S.C. Farber, and J. Maxwell (1989)Valuation and Management of Wetland Ecosystems" ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS. 1:335-361.

Snippet: In a survey using the CVM, the estimated average willingness to pay for maintaining populations of bald eagles, wild turkeys, and Atlantic salmon were $19, $12, and $8, respectively.
Source: The Economic Value of Open Space: A Review and Synthesis.
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Stevens, T. (1990) "The Economic Value of Bald Eagles, Wild Turkeys, Atlantic Salmon, and Coyotes in New England" Resources and Environment: Management Choices Series. November Report of the Dept. of Resource Economics, Univ. of Mass., Amherst.

Snippet: The Northeastern Forest Alliance created by state natural resources commissioners from Maine, New Hampshire, New York, and Vermont, estimated that the four-state region's forests contributed nearly $26 billion to the regional economy in 1987.
Source: The Economic Value of Open Space: A Review and Synthesis.
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Northeast Forest Alliance (1993) "The Economic Importance of Northeast Forest" Saranac Lake, NY: Northeast Forest Alliance.

Snippet: Tourism makes up 75 of global trade in goods and services and $195 billion per year in domestic and international receipts. Adventure tourism, including ecotourism, comprised 10% of the market in 1989 and was increasing at a rate of 30% per year.
Source: The Economic Value of Open Space: A Review and Synthesis.
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Harms, V. (1994) THE NATIONAL AUDUBON SOCIETY ALMANAC OF THE ENVIRONMENT: THE ECOLOGY OF EVERDAY LIFE. New York: G.P. Putnam's.

Snippet: A 1995 USDA Forest Service report estimated that 13 million Americans canoe, 58 million fish and 54 million camp. The fastest growing activities are hiking, backpacking, and primitive site camping.
Source: The Economic Value of Open Space: A Review and Synthesis.
Year: 1995
Full Citation: USDA Forest Service (1995) "National Survey on Recreation and the Environment: 1994-95 Key Findings" Washington DC: USDA Forest Service.

Snippet: In 1991, almost 110 million Americans participated in wildlife-related activities and spent an estimated $59 billion. Anglers spent $24 billion, hunters spent $12 billion and non-consumptive participants spent $18 billion.
Source: The Economic Value of Open Space: A Review and Synthesis.
Year: 1995
Full Citation: US Dept. of Interior (1993) "National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-associated Recreation. Washington DC: USDI.

Snippet: In the US, tens of millions of birders spend over $20 billion each year on seed, travel and birding equipment. Active birders spend between $1500 and $3400 on birding each year, most of which is spent on travel.
Source: The Economic Value of Open Space: A Review and Synthesis.
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Kerlinger, P. (1993) "Birding Economics and Birder Demographics Studies as Conservation Tools" in STATUS AND MANAGEMENT OF NEOTROPICAL MIGRATORY BIRDS. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report. GTR-RM-229.

Snippet: One study estimated that the direct expenditures by birders visiting eight selected National Wildlife Refuges in the US ranged from $0.5 million to $14.4 million per refuge per year.
Source: The Economic Value of Open Space: A Review and Synthesis.
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Kerlinger, P. (1995) "The Economic Impact of Birding Ecotourism on Communities Surrounding Eight National Wildlife Refuges" Washington DC: National Fish and Wildlife Association.

Snippet: It is estimated that the 53,000 birders visiting Pennsylvania's Hawk Mountain Sanctuary were estimated to contribute $2.4 million to the local economy each year.
Source: The Economic Value of Open Space: A Review and Synthesis.
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Kerlinger, P. and J. Brett (1995) "Hawk Mountain Sanctuary: A Case Study of Birder Visitation and Birding Economics" in WILDLIFE AND RECREATIONISTS: COEXISTENCE THROUGH MANAGEMENT AND RESEARCH. Washington DC: Island Press.

Snippet: A 1981 US Tax Court case in Arlington, VA, determined that the loss of a 100-year-old black oak tree on a property valued $164,500 reduced its value by $15,000, or 9%.
Source: Scenic America Technical Bulletin 1(1) 1992.
Year: 1992
Full Citation: Scenic America Technical Bulletin 1(1) 1992.

Snippet: Cluster development may save infrastructure costs. At densities of one dwelling per five acres, approximately $3500 in site development costs could be saved for each increase of one dwelling per five-acre lot.
Source: Scenic America Technical Bulletin 1(2). 1992
Year: 1992
Full Citation: Legg Mason (1990)"Real Estate Report on Cluster Developments in Howard County, Maryland" Unpublished Report.

Snippet: In a Culpeper County, Va., study it was found that 'for every dollar of revenue collected from residential land, $1.25 is spent on county services; for every dollar spent on farm / forest / open-space, 19 cents is spent on services.
Source: Scenic America Technical Bulletin 1(2). 1992,
Year: 1992
Full Citation: Vance, Tamara and Arthur Larson (1988) "Fiscal Impact of Major Land Uses in Culpeper County, Virginia" Piedmont Environmental Council.

Snippet: Travel and tourism account for 6 to 7% of the US GNP and ranks as the third largest retail industry in terms of sales and second largest private employer.
Source: Scenic America Technical Bulletin. 1(3) 1992.
Year: 1992
Full Citation: Hunt, John D. (1986) "Tourist Expenditures in the United States" President's Commission on Americans Outdoors: A Literature Review.

Snippet: A Historic Restoration Tax Credit program in Virginia designed to restore 900 buildings helped create 6,600 jobs in construction trades and over 6,000 jobs in spin-off sectors.
Source: Planning Commissioners' Journal. No.23.
Year: 1996
Full Citation: McMahon, Ed (1996) "Historic Districts and Property Values" Planning Commissioners' Journal no.23. Summer 1996. [from Preservation Alliance of Virginia]

Snippet: Virginia's "Main Street Program," focused on the downtown revitalization of 20 small communities in the context of historic preservation has resulted in 1100 new businesses and a net gain of 2170 new jobs.
Source: Planning Commissioners' Journal. No.23.
Year: 1996
Full Citation: McMahon, Ed (1996) "Historic Districts and Property Values" Planning Commissioners' Journal no.23. Summer 1996. [from Preservation Alliance of Virginia]

Snippet: A Historic Restoration Tax Credit program in Virginia resulted in construction activity that yielded a total of $270 million in household income in Virginia.
Source: Planning Commissioners' Journal. No.23.
Year: 1996
Full Citation: McMahon, Ed (1996) "Historic Districts and Property Values" Planning Commissioners' Journal no.23. Summer 1996. [from Preservation Alliance of Virginia]

Snippet: A study in Lake County, Ohio, found that for every $1 received in residential property taxes, the community paid $1.54 to provide services to these properties. This compares with farm / forestland, where for every $1 received, only 34 cents was paid out.
Source: EcoCity Cleveland
Year: 1996
Full Citation: ECOCITY CLEVELAND (1996) "Moving to the Cornfields: A Reader on Urban Sprawl" Special Publication.

Snippet: According to the US Fish & Wildlife Service, 108 million people over the age 16 take part in wildlife related recreation each year. Annual expenditures by these participants in 1991 were $59 billion with over $40 million spent on hunting and fishing.
Source: FROM THE AMERICAN GREENWAYS PROGRAM flyer
Year: 0
Full Citation:  

Snippet: A 1988 study found that hunting, fishing, and wildlife viewing results in $2.9 billion of annual spending in California alone. This generates $1.6 billion in personal income to California business owners and employees.
Source: FROM THE AMERICAN GREENWAYS PROGRAM flyer
Year: 0
Full Citation:  

Snippet: According to the California Office of Economic Research, campers spent over $2 billion in California in 1990.
Source: FROM THE AMERICAN GREENWAYS PROGRAM flyer
Year: 0
Full Citation:  

Snippet: In 1986 alone, 30 million fishermen in the US spent $301 million on licenses and US hunters spent $322 million on licenses.
Source: FROM THE AMERICAN GREENWAYS PROGRAM flyer
Year: 0
Full Citation:  

Snippet: According to a 1994 Roper Survey on Outdoor Recreation, fishing is the "favorite" recreational activity among men (19%). In 1991 anglers spend $24 billion or an average of $674 each.
Source: FROM THE AMERICAN GREENWAYS PROGRAM flyer
Year: 0
Full Citation:  

Snippet: Americans spend $18 billion a year to wathc wildlife, triple what they spend on movies or sporting events. Birdwatchers alone spend $5.2 billion a year according to studies by the US Fish & Wildlife Service.
Source: FROM THE AMERICAN GREENWAYS PROGRAM flyer
Year: 0
Full Citation:  

Snippet: According to the US Fish & Wildlife Service, 108 million people over the age 16 take part in wildlife related recreation each year. Annual expenditures by these participants in 1991 were $59 billion with over $40 million spent on hunting and fishing.
Source: FROM THE AMERICAN GREENWAYS PROGRAM flyer
Year: 0
Full Citation:  

Snippet: A study of more than 8100 tourists to the Florida Keys showed that return visitors are less satisfied with the amount of living coral on the reefs, water quality, condition of parks and protected areas and the opportunity to view wildlife than previously.
Source: Miami Herald
Year: 1997
Full Citation: MIAMI HERALD "Our Reefs are of Economic Value" Marika Lynch. Interview with Paul Dye, Nature Conservancy. 1/31/97.

Snippet: 94% of the 2.54 million visitors to the Florida Keys last year said they were concerned about protecting the environment.
Source: Miami Herald
Year: 1997
Full Citation: MIAMI HERALD "Our Reefs are of Economic Value" Marika Lynch. Interview with Paul Dye, Nature Conservancy. 1/31/97.

Snippet: The Boston-based Organization for a New Equality estimates that spending $113 billion to clean up the environment and revitalize the nation's infrastructure could create between 3.8 million and 6 million new jobs, especially in blighted urban areas.
Source: Boston Globe
Year: 1997
Full Citation: BOSTON GLOBE. 1/20/97

Snippet: A 1995 Ohio poll revealed that 48% of Ohioans strongly agree and 30% somewhat agree that the unmanaged growth of strip malls, shopping centers and subdivisions is all but consuming Ohio's landscape and it's go to be slowed down.
Source: EcoCity Cleveland (5)1/2
Year: 1996
Full Citation: EcoCity Cleveland (1996) September / October. p.13.

Snippet: The same poll also revealed that 81% of Ohioans felt that the state's open spaces, farmlands, and waterways are either seriously or somewhat threatened by unmanaged growth.
Source: EcoCity Cleveland (5)1/2
Year: 1996
Full Citation: EcoCity Cleveland (1996) September / October p.13.

Snippet: In a typical year, 167 Ohioans, mostly the elderly or children, die in vehicle-pedestrian accidents and another 3350 are injured according to a report released by the Ohio Sierra Club.
Source:  
Year: 1997
Full Citation: "Mean Streets: Pedestrian Safey and Reform of the Nation's Transportation Law" by the Environmental Working Group and the Surface Transportation Policy Group. Washington DC.

Snippet: In 1995, only 71 homicides in Ohio were committed by strangers with guns, so the report concludes that Ohioans are 2.4 times more likely to be killed by a vehicle while walking.
Source:  
Year: 1997
Full Citation: "Mean Streets: Pedestrian Safey and Reform of the Nation's Transportation Law" by the Environmental Working Group and the Surface Transportation Policy Group. Washington DC.

Snippet: Nationally, pedestrians account for 14% of all traffic-related deaths yet only 1% of federal highway safety funds is spent on pedestrian safety. Pedestrian fatalities represented 115 of Ohio's traffic related deaths from 1986 to 1995.
Source: Akron Beacon Journal
Year: 1997
Full Citation: "Mean Streets: Pedestrian Safey and Reform of the Nation's Transportation Law" by the Environmental Working Group and the Surface Transportation Policy Group. Washington DC.

Snippet: Agriculture is Ohio's leading industry with 72,000 farms covering 15.1 million acres and pumping $56.2 billion into the state's economy every year.
Source: Akron Beacon Journal (?)
Year: 0
Full Citation: Akron Beacon Journal (?). "Task Force Seeks to Curb Urban Sprawl"

Snippet: Ohio lost an average of 9 acres of farmland an hour - more than 1.4 million acres - between 1974 and 1992, according to the Ohio Agricultural Statistics Service.
Source: Akron Beacon Journal (?)
Year: 0
Full Citation: Akron Beacon Journal (?). "Task Force Seeks to Curb Urban Sprawl"

Snippet: A survey to determine the important barriers to greater participation in outdoor recreation programs in Ohio found that over 21% of respondents felt that recreation sites are too far away. 35% felt that recreation sites are too crowded.
Source: 1993 SCORP
Year: 1993
Full Citation: Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Office of Real Estate and Land Management (1993) 1993 State Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan.

Snippet: In a survey of Lake Erie private boat sport anglers, it was found that mean expenditure per angling day in 1987 was $25.69. The willingness to pay in order to angle rather than to go without is over $75 per person per day.
Source: Ohio Sea Grant
Year: 1990
Full Citation: Hushak, Leroy J. and Huei-Yann Jeng (1990) "Ohio's Lake Erie Private Boat Sport Anglers - A 1987 Resurvey" Ohio Sea Grant College Program, The Ohio State University.

Snippet: Anglers spent about $4.5 million on angling in Lake Erie from Lorain County. ($84/trip * 20 trips * 2700 anglers).
Source: Ohio Sea Grant
Year: 1990
Full Citation: Hushak, Leroy J. and Huei-Yann Jeng (1990) "Ohio's Lake Erie Private Boat Sport Anglers - A 1987 Resurvey" Ohio Sea Grant College Program, The Ohio State University.

Snippet: From 1984 to 1994, usage of Ohio's state parks increased 43%; there are 46 states that have more recreation land per 1000 people than Ohio.
Source: Ohio State of the Environment Report
Year: 1996
Full Citation: Ohio EPA, Comparative Risk Project (1996) "Facts and Figures About Ohio's Environment" Companion to the 1995 STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT REPORT. April.

Snippet: In 1900, 47.8% of Ohio was pasture land; In 1985, pasture constituted 10.5%.
Source: Ohio State of the Environment Report
Year: 1996
Full Citation: Ohio EPA, Comparative Risk Project (1996) "Facts and Figures About Ohio's Environment" Companion to the 1995 STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT REPORT. April.

Snippet: Almost 75% of Ohio's population lives in urban areas of the state.
Source: Ohio State of the Environment Report
Year: 1996
Full Citation: Ohio EPA, Comparative Risk Project (1996) "Facts and Figures About Ohio's Environment" Companion to the 1995 STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT REPORT. April.

Snippet: In 1940, there were 240,000 farms in Ohio; in 1993, there were 76,000.
Source: Ohio State of the Environment Report
Year: 1996
Full Citation: Ohio EPA, Comparative Risk Project (1996) "Facts and Figures About Ohio's Environment" Companion to the 1995 STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT REPORT. April.

Snippet: By 1979, the Ohio population bald eagles had dropped to a low of four breeding pairs. since the early 1980s, the population has slowly been increasing to 26 breeding pairs in 1994.
Source: Ohio State of the Environment Report
Year: 1996
Full Citation: Ohio EPA, Comparative Risk Project (1996) "Facts and Figures About Ohio's Environment" Companion to the 1995 STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT REPORT. April.

Snippet: According to the roadkill survey, the most dramatic increase in wildlife populations has been in raccoons since 1987.
Source: Ohio State of the Environment Report
Year: 1996
Full Citation: Ohio EPA, Comparative Risk Project (1996) "Facts and Figures About Ohio's Environment" Companion to the 1995 STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT REPORT. April.

Snippet: Beaver, absent form Ohio for 100 years, now occupy two-thirds of the state with populations reaching up to 14,000 animals.
Source: Ohio State of the Environment Report
Year: 1996
Full Citation: Ohio EPA, Comparative Risk Project (1996) "Facts and Figures About Ohio's Environment" Companion to the 1995 STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT REPORT. April.

Snippet: Extensive loss of forest, coupled with unregulated hunting led to the extirpation of wild turkeys from Ohio in 1904. From 1956 to 1963, wild turkey were transplanted in Ohio; in spring of 1994, Ohio's wild turkey population was estimated at 95,000 birds.
Source: Ohio State of the Environment Report
Year: 1996
Full Citation: Ohio EPA, Comparative Risk Project (1996) "Facts and Figures About Ohio's Environment" Companion to the 1995 STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT REPORT. April.

Snippet: In January 1994, a record number of waterfowl were counted, however some of this increase is due to species such as Canada geese, which are considered "nuisance" birds by some.
Source: Ohio State of the Environment Report
Year: 1996
Full Citation: Ohio EPA, Comparative Risk Project (1996) "Facts and Figures About Ohio's Environment" Companion to the 1995 STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT REPORT. April.

Snippet: Long-term trend analysis by the Division of Wildlife at ODNR indicates significant population declines in Ohio for many grassland birds - namely upland sandpiper, bobolink, eastern meadowlark, vesper sparrow, grasshopper sparrow, and dickissel.
Source: Ohio State of the Environment Report
Year: 1996
Full Citation: Ohio EPA, Comparative Risk Project (1996) "Facts and Figures About Ohio's Environment" Companion to the 1995 STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT REPORT. April.

Snippet: Increases in bird populations, such as the mourning dove, are associated with more intense land uses, such as suburban or urban land.
Source: Ohio State of the Environment Report
Year: 1996
Full Citation: Ohio EPA, Comparative Risk Project (1996) "Facts and Figures About Ohio's Environment" Companion to the 1995 STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT REPORT. April.

Snippet: Only about 10% of Ohio's estimated original seven million acres of wetlands still exist; the remaining wetlands are concentrated in the northern one third of the state.
Source: Ohio State of the Environment Report
Year: 1996
Full Citation: Ohio EPA, Comparative Risk Project (1996) "Facts and Figures About Ohio's Environment" Companion to the 1995 STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT REPORT. April.

Snippet: Filling and draining of wetlands directly affect ecosystems by depleting habitat, reducing wildlife, and species diversity, and increasing potential for floods.
Source: Ohio State of the Environment Report
Year: 1996
Full Citation: Ohio EPA, Comparative Risk Project (1996) "Facts and Figures About Ohio's Environment" Companion to the 1995 STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT REPORT. April.

Snippet: There are more than 60,000 dams in Ohio
Source: Ohio State of the Environment Report
Year: 1996
Full Citation: Ohio EPA, Comparative Risk Project (1996) "Facts and Figures About Ohio's Environment" Companion to the 1995 STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT REPORT. April.

Snippet: In 1940, 3.2 million acres of Ohio were forested, in 1991 7.86 million acres were identified in the state. The type of forest, however, has changed - leading to different types of habitat.
Source: Ohio State of the Environment Report
Year: 1996
Full Citation: Ohio EPA, Comparative Risk Project (1996) "Facts and Figures About Ohio's Environment" Companion to the 1995 STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT REPORT. April.

Snippet: In 1992, 7,304,197 cars with about 29 million tires were registered in Ohio; only four other states had more registered vehicles.
Source: Ohio State of the Environment Report
Year: 1996
Full Citation: Ohio EPA, Comparative Risk Project (1996) "Facts and Figures About Ohio's Environment" Companion to the 1995 STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT REPORT. April.

Snippet: As of December 1994, there were 69 operating landfills, 6 operating incinerators, and 52 operating solid waste transfer stations in Ohio.
Source: Ohio State of the Environment Report
Year: 1996
Full Citation: Ohio EPA, Comparative Risk Project (1996) "Facts and Figures About Ohio's Environment" Companion to the 1995 STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT REPORT. April.

Snippet: In a 1995 report, the Division of Solid and Infectious Waste Management at Ohio EPA estimates that there is 8.8 to 11.7 years of publicly-available disposal capacity remaining in the state.
Source: Ohio State of the Environment Report
Year: 1996
Full Citation: Ohio EPA, Comparative Risk Project (1996) "Facts and Figures About Ohio's Environment" Companion to the 1995 STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT REPORT. April.

Snippet: There are currently 1190 known unregulated hazardous waste sites in Ohio; 35 of these are on the National Priority List commonly referred to as Superfund.
Source: Ohio State of the Environment Report
Year: 1996
Full Citation: Ohio EPA, Comparative Risk Project (1996) "Facts and Figures About Ohio's Environment" Companion to the 1995 STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT REPORT. April.

Snippet: From 1983 to 1993, the Ohio EPA received reports of 50,759 spills. The most common type of spill involved petroleum products.
Source: Ohio State of the Environment Report
Year: 1996
Full Citation: Ohio EPA, Comparative Risk Project (1996) "Facts and Figures About Ohio's Environment" Companion to the 1995 STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT REPORT. April.

Snippet: Inadequate wastewater infrastructure can result in combined sewer overflows which can seriously impact aquatic communities; there are an estimated 2,000 locations of combined sewer overflows in Ohio.
Source: Ohio State of the Environment Report
Year: 1996
Full Citation: Ohio EPA, Comparative Risk Project (1996) "Facts and Figures About Ohio's Environment" Companion to the 1995 STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT REPORT. April.

Snippet: There are between 75,000 and 80,000 underground storage tanks in Ohio; approximately 50% of all registered tanks are in 11 metropolitan counties.
Source: Ohio State of the Environment Report
Year: 1996
Full Citation: Ohio EPA, Comparative Risk Project (1996) "Facts and Figures About Ohio's Environment" Companion to the 1995 STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT REPORT. April.

Snippet: In 1990, an estimated 43% of all air pollution could be traced to mobile sources such as automobiles, buses, and trucks. In 1977 the average length of a trip to work was 9.3 miles; in 1990, the average length of the trip to work was 10.9 miles.
Source: Ohio State of the Environment Report
Year: 1996
Full Citation: Ohio EPA, Comparative Risk Project (1996) "Facts and Figures About Ohio's Environment" Companion to the 1995 STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT REPORT. April.

Snippet: Two percent of Ohioan use public transportation to get to work.
Source: Ohio State of the Environment Report
Year: 1996
Full Citation: Ohio EPA, Comparative Risk Project (1996) "Facts and Figures About Ohio's Environment" Companion to the 1995 STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT REPORT. April.

Snippet: In 1990, Ohio's EPA Division of Air Pollution Control had records of 5,696 stationary sources of pollution at 1,489 facilities.
Source: Ohio State of the Environment Report
Year: 1996
Full Citation: Ohio EPA, Comparative Risk Project (1996) "Facts and Figures About Ohio's Environment" Companion to the 1995 STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT REPORT. April.

Snippet: There are 337 state and federal endangered species in Ohio. In a 1990 poll, 84.5% of all Ohioans surveyed felt it was extremely important to set aside areas for endangered species.
Source: Comparing the Risks...Executive Summary
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Ohio EPA, Comparative Risk Project (1995) "Comparing the Risks of Ohio's Environmental Conditions: Executive Summary of Ohio's State of the Environment Report" December.

Snippet: In 1993 Ohio was ranked 12th in the nation in coal production and 3rd for coal consumption.
Source: Comparing the Risks...Executive Summary
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Ohio EPA, Comparative Risk Project (1995) "Comparing the Risks of Ohio's Environmental Conditions: Executive Summary of Ohio's State of the Environment Report" December.

Snippet: Abandoned wells, which may provide a pathway for chemicals, bacteria and viruses to get into groundwater supplies, number over 200,000 in Ohio in 1995.
Source: Comparing the Risks...Executive Summary
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Ohio EPA, Comparative Risk Project (1995) "Comparing the Risks of Ohio's Environmental Conditions: Executive Summary of Ohio's State of the Environment Report" December.

Snippet: Based on floodplain maps, approximately 5% of Ohio's land is at risk from extreme flooding.
Source: Comparing the Risks...Executive Summary
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Ohio EPA, Comparative Risk Project (1995) "Comparing the Risks of Ohio's Environmental Conditions: Executive Summary of Ohio's State of the Environment Report" December.

Snippet: In a 1988 US EPA report, it was estimated that non-point source pollution was responsible for the degradation of up to 76% of degraded lakes.
Source: Comparing the Risks...Executive Summary
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Ohio EPA, Comparative Risk Project (1995) "Comparing the Risks of Ohio's Environmental Conditions: Executive Summary of Ohio's State of the Environment Report" December.

Snippet: Accidents involving hazardous wastes accounted for .4% of all shipping accidents in Ohio.
Source: Comparing the Risks...Executive Summary
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Ohio EPA, Comparative Risk Project (1995) "Comparing the Risks of Ohio's Environmental Conditions: Executive Summary of Ohio's State of the Environment Report" December.

Snippet: The 1996 Ohio Water Resource Inventory shows 49.3 percent of Ohio's rivers meet the goals of the federal Clean Water Act, up from 56.6 percent in 1994. Nearly half of the 8000 miles monitored now meet the standards, up from one-third four years ago.
Source: Columbus Dispatch
Year: 1997
Full Citation: Columbus Dispatch (1997) "Nearly Half of Ohio Rivers Clean, EPA Says" reported by Randall Edwards. 6/17/97

Snippet: A state report shows that fish with "highly or extremely elevated levels of contaminants" have been found in nearly 20 of the stream and river segments sampled by the Ohio EPA since 1994. The main pollutants were PCBs, mercury and lead.
Source: Cleveland Plain Dealer
Year: 1997
Full Citation: Cleveland Plain Dealer (1997) "Contaminated Fish Still Common in Ohio" by Bill Sloat. 6/21/97.

Snippet: In the November, 1996 elections, over $4 billion in new spending was approved by voters to fund parks, open spaces, greeways and farmland preservation, nationwide.
Source: Cleveland Plain Dealer
Year: 1996
Full Citation: Cleveland Plain Dealer (1996) "Americans and the Land: Is it a New Day?" by Neil Peirce. 12/22/97.

Snippet: Hunting on public lands in Ohio generates $54.1 in retail sales, contributing $34.4 million in salaries and wages and 1,700 jobs annually to Ohio's economy. Hunting also provides benefits to the state government by generating $3 million in tax revenues.
Source: Economic Impacts of Fish and Wildlife Associated Recreation
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Southwick Associates (1997) "The Economic Impact of Fish and Wildlife-Associated Recreation on Public Lands in Ohio" Research Paper.

Snippet: Pond and lake fishing generates $305.9 million in retail sales, $203.9 in salaries and wages, and 10,400 jobs annually.
Source: Economic Impacts of Fish and Wildlife Associated Recreation
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Southwick Associates (1997) "The Economic Impact of Fish and Wildlife-Associated Recreation on Public Lands in Ohio" Research Paper.

Snippet: Non-consumptive activities on public lands in Ohio generates $50.2 million in retail sales, $35.5 million in salaries and wages, 2,000 jobs; as well as $3.7 million in tax revenues.
Source: Economic Impacts of Fish and Wildlife Associated Recreation
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Southwick Associates (1997) "The Economic Impact of Fish and Wildlife-Associated Recreation on Public Lands in Ohio" Research Paper.

Snippet: Stream and river fishing genrates $71.1 million in retail sales, $47.2 million in salaries and wages, and 2400 jobs annually.
Source: Economic Impacts of Fish and Wildlife Associated Recreation
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Southwick Associates (1997) "The Economic Impact of Fish and Wildlife-Associated Recreation on Public Lands in Ohio" Research Paper.

Snippet: Hunting, fishing, and non-consumptive activities in Ohio generate approx. $38.4 in federal income tax revenues and $33.3 million in state income and sales tax revenues.
Source: Economic Impacts of Fish and Wildlife Associated Recreation
Year: 1995
Full Citation: Southwick Associates (1997) "The Economic Impact of Fish and Wildlife-Associated Recreation on Public Lands in Ohio" Research Paper.

Snippet: ISTEA enhancement projects help provide local communities with benefits such as direct involvment, non-motorized transportation, economic development, and livable communities.
Source: ISTEA & Trails: Enhancement Funding for Bicycling and Walking
Year: 1997
Full Citation: Rails-to-Trails Conservancy (1997) "ISTEA & Trails: Enhancement Funding for Bicycling and Walking" pamphlet

Snippet: The $820 million committed to trail, bicycle and pedestrian facilities during the first five years of ISTEA implementation have leverage $295 million in local and state matching funds to the selection of over 2,954 projects nationwide.
Source: ISTEA & Trails: Enhancement Funding for Bicycling and Walking
Year: 1997
Full Citation: Rails-to-Trails Conservancy (1997) "ISTEA & Trails: Enhancement Funding for Bicycling and Walking" pamphlet. Washington, DC.

Snippet: The storefront area of Dunedin, Florida, was suffering a 35% vacancy rate until the Pinellas Trail rolled through town. Now storefront occupancy is 100% and businesses are booming.
Source: ISTEA & Trails: Enhancement Funding for Bicycling and Walking
Year: 1997
Full Citation: Rails-to-Trails Conservancy (1997) "ISTEA & Trails: Enhancement Funding for Bicycling and Walking" pamphlet

Snippet: Currently, 5% of Americans travel by foot or bicycle as their primary mode. Given adequate facilities, 13% would make bicycling and walking their first choice, according to a Pathways for People poll.
Source: ISTEA & Trails: Enhancement Funding for Bicycling and Walking
Year: 1997
Full Citation: Rails-to-Trails Conservancy (1997) "ISTEA & Trails: Enhancement Funding for Bicycling and Walking" pamphlet. Washington, DC.

Snippet: Nearly 1/2 of all trips people make within their communities can be made easily on foot or bicycle. The 1990 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey revealed that nearly 50% of all personal travel trips are less than 3 miles long.
Source: ISTEA & Trails: Enhancement Funding for Bicycling and Walking
Year: 1997
Full Citation: Rails-to-Trails Conservancy (1997) "ISTEA & Trails: Enhancement Funding for Bicycling and Walking" pamphlet. Washington, DC.

Snippet: The 1990 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey revealed that personal and family business trips, like doctor visits, household errands, and visits to friends, account for 41.5% of all trips and are well-suited to travel by foot or bicycle.
Source: ISTEA & Trails: Enhancement Funding for Bicycling and Walking
Year: 1997
Full Citation: Rails-to-Trails Conservancy (1997) "ISTEA & Trails: Enhancement Funding for Bicycling and Walking" pamphlet. Washington, DC.

Snippet: The anticipated economic benefits of the Historic Liberty Trail, in Liberty County, Georgia, include the creation of 1,300 new jobs and approximately $41 million in local option sales tax revenues by the year 2000.
Source: 25 of America's Best Enhancement Projects
Year: 1996
Full Citation: National Transportation Enhancements Conference (1996) "25 of America's Best Enhancement Projects". Prepared by Suzanne Mackay and Frank Vespe, Scenic America.

Snippet: The George S. Mickelson Trail, in South Dakota, is responsible for nearly a dozen new trail related businesses.
Source: 25 of America's Best Enhancement Projects
Year: 1996
Full Citation: National Transportation Enhancements Conference (1996) "25 of America's Best Enhancement Projects". Prepared by Suzanne Mackay and Frank Vespe, Scenic America.

Snippet: In southeastern West Virginia, the Greenbriar River Trail has seen usage double to 57,000 visitors after enhancement funded improvements. This influx pumped $2 million into the local economy.
Source: 25 of America's Best Enhancement Projects
Year: 1996
Full Citation: National Transportation Enhancements Conference (1996) "25 of America's Best Enhancement Projects". Prepared by Suzanne Mackay and Frank Vespe, Scenic America.

Snippet: Xenia Station, in Xenia, Ohio is a hub for a five trail complex. It is expected that more than 1,000,000 people are expected to use the hub annually upon its completion.
Source: 25 of America's Best Enhancement Projects
Year: 1996
Full Citation: National Transportation Enhancements Conference (1996) "25 of America's Best Enhancement Projects". Prepared by Suzanne Mackay and Frank Vespe, Scenic America.

Snippet: The Iron Horse Regional Trail, in California, expects over 500,000 user trips annually in the late 1990s, yielding numerous economic benefits.
Source: 25 of America's Best Enhancement Projects
Year: 1996
Full Citation: National Transportation Enhancements Conference (1996) "25 of America's Best Enhancement Projects". Prepared by Suzanne Mackay and Frank Vespe, Scenic America.

Snippet:  
Source: National Bicycling and Walking Study: Case Study No. 9
Year: 1992
Full Citation: Federal Highway Admin., US DOT (1992) "National Bicycling and Walking Study: Case Study No. 9 - Linking Bicycle / Pedestrian Facilities with Transit" FHWA-PD-93-012. Washington DC.

Snippet: Nature's economic "value" is estimated at $33 trillion per year, when considering the goods and services provided by ecosystems. This is greater than the world's combined gross domestic product, which is valued at $18 trillion.
Source: Common Ground. 8(5)
Year: 1997
Full Citation: COMMON GROUND (1997) "Small Tracts" July/August.

Snippet: It is estimated that Louisiana's fish, wildlife, and boating resources generate economic impacts of at least $8.7 billion, reflecting 93,500 jobs and $2 billion in direct salaries and wages.
Source: Common Ground. 8(5)
Year: 1997
Full Citation: COMMON GROUND (1997) "Small Tracts" July/August.

 

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